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For tens of million years the products of the volcanic action were the reason why Milos (just like Kimolos) was flourishing in history, even when other Aegean islands were going through periods of decline. In the pre-historic years it was the obsidian (or obsidianus, its name coming from the Latin obsidianus), a hard volcanic rock with glassy form and glossy black colour that constituted, mainly in the Neolithic era, a favourite raw material for tool manufacturing. Obsidian trade was through the town it had been developed in Fylakopi from 2000 to 1100 BC. In the antiquity it was kaolin, gypsum, and sulfur. In the Middle Ages it was the silver ores. And in more recent times it is kaolin, perlite, bentonite, pozzolan, sulfur, manganese etc.

Glaronisia (Seagull islets)

  Across Papafragas you will see a rare creation of nature 0.8-0.7 million years of age. Thousands of standing pentagonal and hexagonal columns, with diagonals of 20-30cm are formed on the andesitic rock and make the tourists, who circumnavigate them, pull out their cameras hastily to take pictures. The islets are permanently accompanied by seagulls. On Glaronisia a climbing field has been created as well.
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The “Arkoudes” (Bears)

  On the entrance of Milos’s bay, on cape Vani, you will see the so-called “Arkoudes” (Bears), one more geological treasure of the island.    
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  Kleftiko location, on the SW edge of Milos next to cape Psalida, stars in posters of Greek Tourism Organization and in the brochures about Milos. It is one of the most impressive landscapes in the Mediterranean and due to its morphology it has been called “Thalassina Meteora”. The coastline is full of white smooth rocks, tall arches, endless underwater caves and small sandy bays. The waters are shallow and they have exotic green and turqoise colours. You can almost always see moored tourist boats and private yachts here, but if you search, you will discover a quiet place to moor off shore. You can come on foot as well.   Info Kleftiko took its name after the pirates, who used to find shelter in the caves and the hidden coves. 
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The craters of Fyriplaka and Trachilas

The two craters on the south of Milos are impressive. They were created by the volcanic activity that existed 0.5 million years ago. Their walls constitute pyroclastic layers with constant alternations of ash, sand and perlite fragments. They are preserved in good condition.

The caves of Papafragas

The three sequential caves with the vertical walls are impressive. They are located on the northern coasts of the island and they owe their existence to the action of the waves and the wind on the volcanic materials of Milos’s rocks. They are among the most impressive ones of that type in Greece. They took their name after a Catholic priest who moored his boats there. Like Kleftiko, they were used as bases of operations during the Turkish occupation.
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Smaragdenia spilia (Emerald cave)

It is also called cave of Agios Ioannis and it is located on the SW side of Milos. It is the most impressive cave of the island and it consists of a chamber 130m long, in which the central section of the room has collapsed, allowing the lights to enter the place making it shine it with wonderful colours among which the emerald one stands out.
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  The lunar scenery of Sarakiniko dazzles the visitors at first sight with its blinding light and the amazing shapes of the rocks. According to the geologists, in the area there are layers of volcanic ash consisting of white to yellowish volcanic materials, which were deposited in a marine environment and they alternate with tuffs of terrestrial deposition. The formation includes giant pieces of pumice with a diameter of up to 3m.
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  * It is 5n.m. away from Milos, on its NW. It covers about 8km2. It consists of volcanic rocks 0.4 million years of age and it belongs to the volcanic arch of the Aegean. At the top of the island there is an impressive volcanic crater. Its slopes are steep and they rise sharply 670m high from the sea.   It is under special protection as a rare species of wild goat lives here. An ancient tank discovered shows that the animals were protected for their meat and the island was an important hunting place for centuries.   * Source: Atlas of Geological Monuments of the Aegean/Publication of the Ministry of the Aegean, 2002,
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My Aegean
Co-financed by Greece and the European Union - European Regional Development Fund