Herodotus was the first to record the ancient traditions regarding the Dryopes, the first settlers of Kythnos. Stephanus of Byzantium also chronicles the Dryopes’ arrival to the island from Euboea. They were led by Kythnos, who named the island after himself. The island of Kythnos was known as “Ophiussa”, “Thermia” and “Thiramnia” till then.
This founding myth seems to be linked with the first settlers that came to the island in the Late Bronze period. Later, the Ionians arrived at the island under the leadership of Kestor and Kephalinos. According to Herodotus, their presence on Kythnos forced some of the Dryopes to leave in search of a new home and travel south towards the prosperous island of Cyprus.